Hysteric Sexuality, Prostitution and Womanhood in Emma Donoghue’s Slammerkin

Shikha Thakur1 & Dr. Meenakshi F.Paul2

1Assistant Professor, Lovely Professional University, Jalandhar, Pb. Email:

 2Professor of English, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, H.P.

Volume 2, Number 1, 2017 I Full Text PDF

Article DOI:  10.21659/bp.v2n1.02


The paper aims at questioning the conventionally established sexuality of woman in Emma Donoghue’s Slammerkin (2000). Plausibly, it lays bare female protagonist’s (Mary) subversion of gender roles, her transgression of boundaries for the reclamation of her dreams and dignity, and the demand for reparation from her for disallowing them. Mary subverts the othered identity imposed upon her by patriarchy, which is conflated with capitalism that identifies her as sacrificial, feeble, and acquiescent. She redefines prostitution as a weapon for acquiring a subject from a treaty of object. To reclaim her autonomous identity, Mary uses her innate intelligence and quick-wittedness, with parody, hysteria, and sexuality to assert her uniqueness and to subvert patriarchy. This in turn, aids Mary to affirm herself as an individual and also to redefine her personhood, vis-a-vis her gender role, social space, and relationships. Reparation is posited with Mary’s trial and hanging, which uncover the embedded biases and injustices in English society of the Enlightenment. The end enforces upon society the need to restructure itself and make reparations for the unjustness that subjected Mary, as vulnerable women were and still are, to homelessness, sexual assault, poverty, desperation, and murder; all merely for her wish to have a better life.

Keywords: gender roles, transgression, object, prostitution, othered, subject, hysteria, sexuality, reclaim, patriarchy, Reparation, personhood, vulnerable women.

Stylistic Analysis of Tagore’s Song Offerings in Gitanjali

Sukanya Saha

Asst. Professor, Dept. of EFL, SRM University, Kattankulathur Campus, Tamilnadu. India. Email:

Volume 2, Number 1, 2017 I Full Text PDF

Article DOI:  10.21659/bp.v2n1.01


Gitanjali is a collection of 103 English poems by Rabindranath Tagore. Originally written in Bengali, Gitanjali means “prayer offering of song”. Gitanjali is a very inviting and engaging text in many ways. It is Tagore’s ponderings over the relationship between humans and the Divine. The core of these songs is the divinity-devotee relationship and each poem in a unique way communicates how God is the center of the poet’s inspiration. The poet’s goal is to unite with the Lord, for the Lord has given him the gift of life and all that he has. He would sing in his glory and keep himself pure for the Lord. The present paper analyses certain prominent linguistic features in these songs and explains their significance. The author uses the tools of stylistic analysis to interpret and understand the specific linguistic choices Tagore made to narrate the conversation between the lord and the devotee and express his unfathomable devotion to God.

Keywords: Tagore, Gitanjali, song offerings, stylistic analysis, sentence structure

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Exploring Emotive Narrative Techniques to Illuminate Cult Writings in Mahasweta Devi’s Rudali and K. Balachander’s Aval Oru Thodarkathai

Mohankumar S   & Dr. V. Vijayalakshmi                                                   

VIT University, Chennai. Email:

   Volume 1, Number 3, 2016 I Full Text PDF

Article DOI:  10.21659/bp.v1n3.s110


Indianism could be the word that has the power to explain Indian culture, habit, heritage, richness, unity, food, and power of literature. On the other hand, it would be same word that would elucidate humiliation and disgrace endured by throng of its population because of ‘caste’ discrimination which has paved way for inhuman communal rites and rituals. This research article thrives to discuss the emotional state of mind of under privileged people by exploring the emotive narrative techniques used by Mahasweta Devi in Rudali and Aval Oru Thodarkathai of K. Balachander that also has the basics of cult writings. Various pangs and pains undergone by populace of disadvantage community especially because of the label ‘Dalit’ they carry are illustrated in this research article.

Keywords: Rudali, Aval Oru Thodarkathai, Economical state, Caste, Religion, Communal rites, Poverty, Womanhood, Battle of life.

“Decoding Visions of Misery” through Rudali of Mahasweta Devi and the Rudalis of Reality

Manjusha CD & Dr. V. Vijayalakshmi

VIT University, Chennai. Email:

  Volume 1, Number 3, 2016 I Full Text PDF

Article DOI:  10.21659/bp.v1n3.s109


Mankind in this world is always found to be filled with plethora of visions and dreams irrespective of their societal status, economic condition and culture and women is not exceptional in this principle. To state, honestly there will not be even a single soul without dreams and visions will not be wrong. Visions and dreams of the person are the persuading factor that leads to achievements through hard work. To simplify, socio economic and cultural perspectives plays an important role in the successful accomplishment of a person’s visions. Through Rudali by Mahasweta Devi, it could be well understood that poverty and cultural creeds acted a hindrance in shattering the visions and as fate decider of women in the particular community and in such a circumstance, it will not be wise to mention that Sanichari would be void of visions. Poverty and the various cultural dogmas worked as a line marker for her to decide about future giving no time to think and proceed. Thus, this research article is a well structured attempt to bring out those ‘would – be’ unexpressed visions of Rudalis in the fiction of Mahasweta Devi and the Rudalis in reality in an unbiased manner bearing the very feminine qualities in having visions and faith of future. Every effort is taken to depict the women in reality that have lots of visions and aspires to achieve the zenith of success but does not expresses these visions because of their socio economic cultural obstacles.

Keywords: Mahasweta Devi and Rudali, Rudalis in reality, visions, socio economic and cultural perspective, fate decider, womanhood, sacrifices and satisfactions.

Sites of Commodification and Exploitation in Mahasweta Devi’s Breasts Stories

Mary Louisa Cappelli, JD, PhD

Independent Scholar, former Lecturer Emerson College.

  Volume 1, Number 3, 2016 I Full Text PDF

Article DOI:  10.21659/bp.v1n3.s108


Mahasweta Devi’s literary sexual reportage in Breast Stories documents how women’s tortured bodies become the historical battleground of deeper socio-economic and political issues, their reproductive systems a discursive site for the examination of insurrection, resistance, and decolonization. In this analysis, I probe the socio-economic and cultural signification and commercialization of the breast in order to examine how women often employ them in their bare life struggles to combat poverty and starvation.

 Key words: Mahasweta Devi, adivasis, survival politics, reproductive justice, breasts

The Curse of Being Woman: Mythological Echoes in Mahasweta Devi’s Draupadi

Shankar Lal Jhanjhnodia & Sanjit Mishra

Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee. Email:

  Volume 1, Number 3, 2016 I Full Text PDF

Article DOI:  10.21659/bp.v1n3.s107


Mythology, like history, has a tendency to repeat and reinvent itself. In order to comprehend the contemporary world, the modern writer seeks a parallel in the remote past.  Mahasweta Devi’s short story Draupadi revisits the past and recreates the character of the mythical Draupadi to formulate an account of a helpless woman who must fend for herself unlike the epical Draupadi who had Lord Krishna as her saviour. Both these characters—Dopdi of Mahasweta Devi’s story and the mythical Draupadi– symbolize exploitation at the hands of their patriarchs. However, Dopdi represents the extreme abjectness of circumstances in the case of a woman in the modern world that boasts of an ultimate cultural advancement. Separated by thousands of years in time, the two are united in this fictional account of Mahasweta Devi only to showcase the never-ending miseries of the women who are no better than the Fanon’s wretched of the earth.  This paper presents an analysis of Mahasweta Devi’s Draupadi under the archetypal framework given by the Canadian scholar Northrop Frye reasonably appropriated into the contemporary Indian context.

 Keywords: Mythology, Draupadi, Lord Krishna, exploitation, saviour, archetypal.

Interconnectivity of Marriage, Sexuality and Streedharma: Reflections through the Minor Female Characters of the Mahabharata

Praggnaparamita Biswas

Asiatic Society, Kolkata. Email:

    Volume 1, Number 3, 2016 I Full Text PDF

Article DOI:  10.21659/bp.v1n3.s207


Mahabharata, the outstanding sacred text of India, is a preamble to the Indian social philosophy. This prehensile text encompasses all sorts of contemporary feminist agendas like gender discrimination, sexuality, female body politics, women disposition, marriage, kinship and so on. Dharma, being the focal point of Mahabharata, acts as a catalyst in outlining the epical structure of this sacred text. Anthropological elements like marriage, sexuality, lineage, motherhood etc. somehow maintain interlink with dharma, particularly with the streedharma. Thus, the symbiotic relationship of sexuality, marriage and streedharma helps in formulating the code of conduct for women of that era. The present paper intends to analyze the aforementioned anthropological issues through the lives of minor female characters who by dint of their courage and dedication change the track of the epic. Though the epical minor females are somehow nugatory or unrecognized due to politics of gender politics, but they are the most viable for situational decision of royal as well as epical design. Therefore this paper tries to justify their strong epical presence and hidden epical politics bestow upon them.

 Key words: Sexuality, Streedharma, Gender politics, Polyandry, Niyoga pratha, Reproductivity.

Interpretation of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in Portraiture: An Overview

Gurdeep Kaur & Rohita Sharma

Department of Business and fine arts, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab, India. Email:

   Volume 1, Number 3, 2016 I Full Text PDF

Article DOI:  10.21659/bp.v1n3.s206


 The influential popularity of Maharaja Ranjit Singh was too vast in his lifetime, that no one could remained detached from him. There are numerous portraits of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in various postures wearing different attires. This paper is an analysis of the presentation of the identity of Sikh Maharaja; Maharaja Ranjit Singh, recognized and grasped by the native painters. The study also focuses on postures and gestures captured by the painters with the inspirations of common-popular knowledge about the behaviors and lifestyle of Sikh Maharaja in Punjab Plains during first half of nineteenth century. This paper is also an attempt to grasp the lifestyle of Maharaja and role of his companions in the entirety of Maharaja Ranjit Singh through data analysis and reviewing the literature and memoirs of European travelers, which is also the base of data analysis. The study is based on explorative method. The study concludes that the interpretation of Maharaja Ranjit Singh through portraiture is the tremendous combination of facts and imaginations of native painters in various native styles combining and adjusting western influences.

Key words: Posture, gesture, seated, equestrian, face, dress.

“If I can’t dance then it’s not my revolution”: Gender, dance, and the culture of protest

Aishwarya Chandran

Independent scholar, Kolkata. Email:

   Volume 1, Number 3, 2016 I Full Text PDF

Article DOI:  10.21659/bp.v1n3.s205

The central problem associated with the analysis of non-European forms of dance as a discourse is the absence of a canonized body of knowledge. The anthropology of dance or the identity of dance as a subjugated form of knowledge which sought to negotiate with power relations emerged fairly late in academic scholarship. Every known history of dance was invariably grounded in racial and ethnographic stereotypes. The unproblematic association of exaggerated physical movement to the beat of percussions with elaborate mating rituals is a native stereotype that the colonized have strived hard to disengage themselves from. The paper seeks to establish how dance, as a subjugated form of knowledge negotiates with power relations. It primarily looks at the ways in which the body negotiates with structures of gender and identity through the medium of dance.

Keywords: Gender, dance, protest.

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Urmila Pawar on Empowerment of Dalit Women and the Aesthetics of Dalit Feminist Identity: A Personal Interview

Munira Salim

Lecturer and Head, Department of English, Stewart Science College, Cuttack, Odisha & PhD Scholar, Ravenshaw University, Cuttack. Email:

  Volume 1, Number 3, 2016 I Full Text PDF

Article DOI:  10.21659/bp.v1n3s301


A desperate wish to meet few literary luminaries made me attend the AHRC funded International Conference in the University of Pune that was held in December, 2015. It was the peak of winter though the city was experiencing moderate climate, and naturally, it was quite comfortable to cope up with the winter’s warmth! One of my wishes that I had nurtured for long was to meet the Dalit feminist writer Urmila Pawar. As the Conference brochure revealed her presence, I started feeling restless, though I was uncertain about the success of my plan. But I was in for a surprise! On the first day of the Conference, Urmila was sitting just two rows ahead of mine, and I was taken aback. For me, the writers of her kind are like the twinkling stars in the Milky Way and I was happy that I had travelled the distance to meet my star! Anyway, after a formal introduction I proposed for an interview which she affirmed to my happiness!

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